Language is a human communication in spoken or written form consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way. Though language seems to be a simple term it has a wide scope. It is important for a CTET/TET/DSC 2018 aspirant to understand in detail the concept of language and the phases of its development.
In this post, we will discuss the concept of Language to answer questions on them easily in CTET, TET & DSC 2018 exams.
Parts of a Language
- Alphabets: It helps us to form words.
- Symbols: They are punctuations such as comma, semicolon and so on, which helps the reader to understand the meaning clearly.
- Grammar: Set of rules that explains how words are used in a language.
- Structure: It helps us to systematically organize a language.
Nature Vs Nurture
We have to revisit this topic as it is essential to understand that does a child learn a language through Nature or Nurture. By Nature, we mean to say that is it heredity that helps us to learn a language. Something that is pre-wired the moment we are in the womb or is it Nurture. which means do we learn a language from the environment that we are exposed to, the influences and the learning’s as an individual. This debate is concerned with the relative contribution that both make on our behaviour. However, we have not reached any conclusion yet.
Sound System of a Word
- Phonology – Study of Speech Sounds used in a language.
- Phonemes – Smallest Unit of Sound such as sh, th, oo
- Morphemes – Smallest Meaningful Combination of Sounds such as friend, come, go.
A child starts to learn a language with the smallest of sounds such as Ah, oh, Ch. These sounds as an individual unit has no meaning but at the later stage helps to form words.
Once a child learns to make phoneme sounds then they gradually start speaking short words, one at a time which may have a meaning. These short words are Morphemes. The technical definition is the smallest word that carries a meaning is called a Morpheme. A word may have more than one morpheme.
- 3 Morphemes: Incoming
In – Prefix Come – Root Ing – Suffix
- 2 Morphemes: Coming
Come – Root Ing – Suffix
- 1 Morpheme: Come
Come – Root
Now phonology also includes graphemes and lexemes.
Graphemes: They are the smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system. In other words, it is
a letter or letters that spell a sound in a word. Ex: leaf. The sound /ee/ is represented by the letters e a.
Lexemes: They are an abstract minimal unit of morphological analysis that corresponds to a set of forms of a single word. Ex: Run, Runs, Ran, Running are all forms of the lexeme Run.
Phases of Language Development
- Receptive Language
- Productive Language
- One Word
- Two Words
To read further about language and phases of language development, download free Language E-book and find in detail the concept of Language and a few questions that are asked in CTET exams. Do watch our expert faculty explain you briefly the same.
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