What is Intelligence?
The standard definition of intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. Several psychologists have classified and defined intelligence in different ways. To summarise a few characteristics based on these theories;
Intelligence is Intelligence is not
- Composite of several intellectual skills Measure of your performance or grades
- Ability to adjust to challenging situations Related to the ordinary tasks of life
- Goal-directed Singular and generic
- Ability to carry on abstract thinking Measure of knowledge acquired
What is Intelligence Quotient (IQ)?
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. Alfred Binet was a French psychologist who invented the first practical intelligence test, the Binet-Simon scale. Studies repeatedly show that performance on intelligence tests is correlated with school achievement. On average, children with higher IQ scores do better on standardized achievement tests, have higher school grades, and complete more years of education.
How do you measure IQ?
Let us now see how presently used Stanford-Binet intelligence scale was developed to measure IQ. The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale is an individually administered intelligence test that was revised from the original Binet-Simon Scale by Lewis M. Terman, a psychologist at Stanford University. Here, children are grouped into different age groups. All children in a particular group, for example, ages 2-5 were given a common test. Five factors are incorporated in these tests which are fluid reasoning which means solving unfamiliar problems, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing which is the ability to make use of mental imagery to solve problems, and working memory.
Let us now see an example to calculate IQ using the Stanford Binet scale.
Raja is 7 years old. He gives the Stanford-Binet test for the age group 7-10 years old and clears the test.
Based on this data we can now calculate his IQ. IQ is calculated using the formula (Mental Age/Chronological Age)x 100 Here mental age is the upper age limit of the group for which Raja has passed the test which in this case is 10 years. Chronological age is his actual age which is 7 years here.
Therefore, IQ = (Mental Age/Chronological Age) x 100
IQ = (10/7)x 100 = 142. 8 So based on the above formula, Raju’s IQ is ~142.
This value can be interpreted using the Stanford Binet Intelligence scale given here.
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